The results suggest that eating breakfast every morning helps reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
A large number of studies have found that eating breakfast is important for maintaining weight, metabolism and overall health. Now, a growing evidence: a small new randomized controlled trials found that regularly eat a large breakfast, by changing the fat metabolism and insulin resistance related gene activity, directly affects the function of the fat cells in the body. Research results show that eating breakfast every morning may help to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the study authors said, even breakfast consumption increased the total calories, the calories may be offset by other energy consumption benefits.
In the study, published in the journal of physiology, researchers asked 49 people between the ages of 21 and 60 to eat breakfast, or almost noon, for six weeks a day. Those in the breakfast group were asked to eat at least 700 calories before 11am and consumed at least half of their calories within two hours of waking up. They can choose what they want, but most people choose typical breakfast foods, such as grains, toast and juice.
Before and after the study, the researchers measured everyone’s metabolism, body composition and cardiovascular and metabolic health. They also to biopsy of their fat cells, to measure related to metabolism and other physiological processes of 44 different the activity of genes and proteins, and the ability of cells to absorb sugar, this is the body’s response to changes in insulin levels.
They found that in people with normal weight, eating breakfast reduced the activity of genes involved in fat burning. In other words, there is some evidence that skipping breakfast will actually increase fat burning, associate professor of nutrition and metabolism at the university of bath Javier Gonzalez (Javier Gonzalez) said in an E-mail. But overall energy balance – the most important aspect of weight loss or weight maintenance – was not significantly different between the two groups. “Breakfast consumption increases the total calorie intake of lean people, but this is offset by breakfast, which also stimulates the energy-wasting energy of lean people,” he said.
More importantly, eating breakfast also lowers the activity of the genes involved in insulin resistance and increases the amount of sugar that cells consume – potentially protecting diabetes and other chronic diseases. The findings “are consistent with previous observations that breakfast consumption is associated with better control of glucose in fat cells,” gonzalez said. “It may affect the risk of disease, but we need to do more in this area.”
But that’s not what they found in obese people. The more fat the body has, the less fat cells respond to insulin. At least one gene linked to fat burning was more active in breakfast eaters than in the fasting group.
Meanwhile, fasting seems to increase the activity of genes associated with inflammation – but only in obese people. “Therefore, the guidelines for breakfast consumption may vary depending on whether people are thin or obese,” says gonzalez. He added that more research was needed to make such recommendations.
Because people in the study ate a carbohydrate-rich breakfast, the researchers could not say whether other types of breakfast, such as high-protein foods, would have the same effect. “However, we are now exploring the effects of different types of breakfast on health and the interaction between breakfast and other healthy behaviours, such as exercise,” gonzalez said.
By better understanding how fats respond to food at different times of the day, scientists may target these mechanisms more precisely, gonzalez says. “We may find new ways to prevent the negative effects of large amounts of fat in the body,” he said. He says it’s possible to do simple things like eating breakfast every day.