Early menarche and menopause are associated with cardiovascular risk – a study

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Women who start their time at an early age, or face advancing menopause, are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, new research shows.

Although the researchers say it remains unclear whether reproductive factors increase the risk, they say that women who reproduce more frequently may have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and may help prevent or delay their onset.

It is important to study the root causes of these findings further as it helps us to propose interventions that target either the population or the individual, “said epidemiologist Sanne Peters .Oxford university.
In the essay by Cardiology and co-author Mark Woodward, they described how they examined the link further by examining data from the British Biobank. The British Biological Library is a database of genetic, medical and living information from more than 500,000 men and women aged between 40 and 69.

The team looked at over 267,000 females and 215,000 men who were healthy and had no cardiovascular history and then studied the participants for the next seven years.
Data showed that 5,882 participants had coronary heart disease, of whom 3,489 were stroke-affected. A total of 9054 participants had one or two cardiovascular diseases, 34% of whom were women.

Once age and other factors were taken into account, including BMI, smoking status and blood pressure, the team found that the risk of cardiovascular disease in women who started menstruating before the age of 12 was higher than the 10% at 12 years of age. In particular, the risk of stroke increased by 17% and the risk of coronary heart disease increased by 5%.

But Peters said it is unclear what lies behind this link, noting that childhood obesity may play a role, but the study only considered BMI when it came to data collection.

The risk of cardiovascular disease in women undergoing natural menopause before the age of 47 is also higher than in the latter, with a 33% increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.

Peters said again that the reason for this connection is unclear. She said: “This is really chicken and eggs: it is a subclinical cardiovascular disease leading to early menopause, or menopause leading to cardiovascular disease?

Although some believe this connection may be due to the relatively short exposure of estrogen, a hormone known to prevent cardiovascular disease, in early postmenopausal women, Peters said the jury did not appear.
Peters added that analyzing whether participants’ genetic studies help to analyze the direct link between premature ejaculation and early menopause and cardiovascular disease is not until another common factor, such as environmental or lifestyle influences. She said: “A considerable number of genes are believed to be related to [female] reproductive lifespan.” The question is whether these genes are also involved in the physiology of cardiovascular disease, and even other diseases such as cancer or diabetes. ”

Coronary heart disease risk has also increased in both men and women, with the risk increasing as the number of children increases.

Peters said this shows that the link is not just a consequence of pregnancy, but can also be complex and involve social, cultural and other factors.

In addition, abortion and hysterectomy were associated with a 14% and 20%, respectively, increase in the risk of coronary heart disease, while stillbirth was associated with an increased risk of stroke.

Dr. John Perry, co-director of growth and development programs at the MRC epidemiology unit at Cambridge University, welcomed the study.

However, he added, it is unclear whether factors such as early adolescence and early menopause lead to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. However, further research is needed to determine whether these represent causal relationships, not correlations. “He said.

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